Unless cited otherwise, entries were created using original SCENE research, and sources / adapted after: Clark, M. and Chadwick, D. (2012), The Carbon Trust / Partnership for Renewables (2011), and Wikipedia. References

For technical information on other aspects of renewable energy, we recommend the following resources:

Aarhus Convention

The Aarhus Convention, signed on June 25th 1998 in the Danish city of Aarhus, grants the public rights regarding access to information, public participation and access to justice, in governmental decision-making processes on matters concerning the local, national and transboundary environment. It focuses on interactions between the public and public authorities.

Agenda 21

Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regards to sustainable development. It is a product of the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992.


The anemometer is used to measure the wind speed on a wind turbine. It typically has three shafts, each with a small cup shape to catch the wind, rotating around a vertical axis. The signals from the anemometer are used by the wind turbine's electronic controller to start the wind turbine when the wind speed reaches approximately 5 metres per second (10 knots). The computers stop the wind turbine automatically if the wind speed exceeds 25 metres per second (50 knots) in order to protect the turbine and its surroundings.

AONB | Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty

An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) is an area of the countryside considered to have significant landscape value in England, Wales or Northern Ireland, that has been specially designated by Natural England on behalf of the United Kingdom government; the Countryside Council for Wales on behalf of the Welsh Governent; or the Northern Ireland Environment Agency on behalf of the Northern Ireland Executive.

Arnstein's Ladder of Participation (1969)

Arnstein's Ladder of Participation (1969) is a guide that deals with situations where someone, or some organisation, seeks to involve others at some level. It postulates that participation doesn't just happen - it is initiated. Someone then manages a process over time, and allows others involved more or less control over what happens. In the guide the process is described during four phases: Initiation - Preparation - Participation - Continuation.

BenCom | Community Benefit Society

Also abbreviated as 'CBS'. A business model that carries the option of securing (or "locking in") primary benefit for the community rather than for investors. Attracts investors interested in bringing dividends to the wider community. Each member gets one vote regardless of the number of shares owned.The BenCom is a type of Industrial and Provident Society (IPS).


Biomass can refer to any type of plant material used for heat, electric power, or liquid fuel. This can range from specific energy crops such as miscanthus or just firewood.

Biogas plant

Biogas power plants use silos called biodigesters to ferment biomass and capture the resultant gas. This is then either burned in a gas turbine for electricity and heat, or fed directly into the gas grid after appropriate cleaning processes. The waste from the fermented biomass makes excellent fertilizer.

Bottom-up approach

An approach to a problem that begins with details and works up to the highest conceptual level, i.e., progressing from small or subordinate units to a larger or more important unit, as in an organisation.

Business plan

A formal statement of your organisation's goals and the plan for reaching them. It is used by the management team to guide the organisation and to inform investors and funders. It may also contain background information about the organisation about the organisation aiming to reach those goals.

Capacity building

Enabling individuals, groups and communities to develop the confidence, understanding and skills required to influence decision making and service delivery.

Capacity factor

The amount of energy a turbine generates in a full year divided by the amount of energy it could produce in a year if it ran at full power constantly. Wind turbines in the UK are likely to generate around 30% of their full capacity, whilst hydro turbines run with a higher capacity factor.

Community benefit

Benefits from renewables projects that can take the form of cash income, job creation, training opportunities, energy efficiency measures and infrastructure improvements.

CBS | Community Benefit Society

Also called a 'BenCom'. A business model that carries the option of securing (or "locking in") primary benefit for the community rather than for investors. Attracts investors interested in bringing dividends to the wider community. Each member gets one vote regardless of the number of shares owned.The BenCom is a type of Industrial and Provident Society (IPS).

CDT | Community Development Trust

Community Development Trusts are organisations that are community owned and led to engage in the development of a defined sector of the local community, but also seek to partner with other private, voluntary and public sector organisations.

CIC | Community Interest Company

Community interest companies are a type of limited company designed specifically for those wishing to operate for the benefit of the community rather than for the benefit of the owners of the company. They are a type of Social Enterprise. This means that a CIC cannot be formed or used solely for the personal gain of a particular person, or group of people. CICs can be limited by shares, or by guarantee, and typically have a statutory “asset lock” to prevent the assets and profits being distributed, except as permitted by legislation. This ensures the assets and profits are retained within the CIC for community purposes, or transferred to another asset-locked organisation, such as another CIC or charity. A CIC cannot be formed to support political activities. A company that is a charity cannot be a CIC, unless it gives up its charitable status. However, a charity may apply to register a CIC as a subsidiary company.

CLVIA | Cumulative landscape and visual impact assessment

An assessment that aims to describe, visually represent and assess the ways in which a proposed windfarm would have additional impacts when considered in addition to other existing, consented or proposed windfarms. It should identify the significant cumulative effects arising from the proposed windfarm.

Common Good Land

'Common Good' was a phrase coined as early as the 15th Century to describe the purposes for which Burghs held assets and earned revenues under the terms of their Charters. Source


Commonties were areas of land that had not been feud but, rather, were held in common by all the heritors (landowners) in a parish. They were thus not true commons (owned by no-one) but rather, the undivided common property of a number of private individuals. The wider public typically had servitude rights over the commonty for domestic and agricultural uses (such as recreational activities, bleaching, collecting fuel and grazing). Commonties varied in size from a few tens of acres to several thousand with contiguous commonties often stretching many miles across neighbouring parishes. Source

Community Engagement

Community engagement refers to the process by which community benefit organisations and individuals build ongoing, permanent relationships for the purpose of applying a collective vision for the benefit of a community.


A microprocessor based control of all turbine functions able to communicate with remote operators. Cumulative effects Additional changes to the landscape or visual amenity caused by the proposed development in conjunction with other developments (associated with or separate to it), or actions that occurred in the past, present or are likely to occur in the foreseeable future. And: The summation of effects that result from changes caused by a development in conjunction with other past, present, or reasonably foreseeable actions.

Co-op | Cooperative Society

Business model in which each members holds a single vote, irrespective of how many shares they own. The most common type of Industrial and Provident Society.

Crowd Funding

The practice of funding a project or venture by raising many small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet.

Cut-in wind speed or start-up wind speed

The wind speed at which a wind turbine begins to generate electricity.

Cut-out wind speed or shut-down wind speed

The wind speed at which a wind turbine ceases to generate electricity, in order to prevent damage to the turbine and its surroundings.

Degree of change

A combination of the scale extent and duration of an effect also defined as ‘magnitude’.

Design iteration

Changes to the design of the wind farm layout in response to continuous feedback about environmental and technical constraints and opportunities.

Development Trust

"Development Trusts are always owned and managed by the community, and aim to accomplish a sustainable regeneration of the community by addressing economic, social, environmental and cultural issues within the area." (Development Trust Association for Scotland (16 May 2012))

Due diligence

The care a reasonable person would take in investigating a potential investment.


In the context of renewable electricity generation, the term efficiency is the ratio of the electrical power generated to the power available - be that from solar radiative energy, kinetic energy in the wind or the potential energy of a hydroelectric plant.

Electromagnetic interference

Also known as EMI, radio frequency interference or RFI when in high frequency or radio frequency, it is disturbance that affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic induction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source. Wind turbines can have this effect on radio signals if not sited carefully.

EIA | Environmental Impact Assessment

An assessment of the main significant environmental effects of certain projects conforming to European Directives and UK regulations.

Environmental fit

The relationship of a development to identified environmental opportunities and constraints in its setting.


A share of ownership. In community renewables, it is a method of raising finance by offering investors a return or share of profits.

ES | Environmental statement

A supporting document to a Planning Application providing environmental information to the planners (in a form suitable for public consumption) reporting the outcome of the EIA.


A review of actions to find whether or not the intended outcomes have been met.

Feasibility study

A study to determine the practicality, strengths and weaknesses of a project and give an illustration of costs.

FCS | Forestry Commission Scotland

The agency responsible for the management of the National Forestry Estate.

Feuars Land

Outwith Burghs (where the Provost, Magistrates and Councillors had legal capacity to hold title to burgh commons), land which was to be held in common under a feudal title (as opposed to common land with no title) had to have a legal owner. The local landowner would be happy enough granting individual feus to villagers but a vehicle was needed to hold title to land to be used by all the inhabitants. Such land would typically be a village green or amenity land in the village. What frequently happened was that land was gifted or sold to the feuars of the village who, collectively took title. Feuars Committees exist in Peterhead, Fraserburgh, Denholm and Letham. Source

FIT | Feed-in Tariff

A financial incentive scheme designed to increase the electricity generation through renewable energy sources. Utilities are required by law to pay small-scale renewable power generators a fixed fee for every kilowatt hour they generate, plus a smaller additional fee for electricity sold back to the grid. This tariff is getting lower over time and varies between technologies and regions of the UK.

Financial forecast

A best guess of what will happen to an organisation in financial terms over a given time period.

Flow duration curve

A graphical representation of the percentage of time in the historical record that a flow of any given magnitude has been equaled or exceeded.

FSA | Financial Services Authority

The UK body responsible for the regulation of financial organisations.


Money set aside for a specified purpose.


The gearbox in a wind turbine transfers power from the low-speed shaft to the high-speed shaft making it turn at approximately 50 times faster than the low-speed shaft.


The electrical generator in wind turbines is a so-called asynchronous generator, and it creates electricity when rotated. On a Nordex N100 the maximum electricity generated is 2500 kilowatts (kW) or 2.5 Mega Watts (2.5MW).

GLVIA | Guidelines for Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment

Guidelines published jointly by the Landscape Institute and Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment (Second Edition, 2002).

High-speed shaft

The high-speed shaft rotates at approximately 1,500 revolutions per minute (RPM) and drives the electrical generator.

Hydraulic brake

Used to stop and start the rotor under set wind conditions.

Hydraulic head

Hydraulic head or piezometric head is a specific measurement of liquid pressure above a geodetic datum. It is usually measured as a surface elevation, expressed in units of length, at the entrance (or bottom) of a piezometer.

Ice throw

The ice throw hazard relates to the process whereby climatic conditions during winter can result in a build-up of ice on the rotor blades of a wind turbine structure when the blades are not moving. The ice throw hazard associated with turbine rotor blades results from the possibility of pieces or sheets of ice being thrown from the rotor blades when they start moving, once climatic conditions cause the ice to be 'shed' from the rotor blades.


Monies received from a provision of a service.


Set up and register a limited liability company.

Indirect effects

Not a direct result of the development, but are often produced away from it or as a result of a complex pathway. Also used by some practitioners to describe visual effects in respect of effects on setting issues.


A person or group of people with dough / mullah.

IPS | Industrial and Provident Society

A business model for industry, business and trade organisations designed to maximise local benefit. A co-operative is an example of an IPS.

JNCC | Joint Nature Conservation Committee

Statutory adviser to Government on UK and international nature conservation.


A unit of energy or work, such as electricity, heat or motion. About the amount required to lift an apple 1 meter straight up. See also: watt

JV | Joint Venture

A partnership between a community organisation and a private or commercial company.

kW | Kilowatt

One thousand watts of electricity. Kilowatts are a rate of electricity output or usage, equivalent to 1000 joules per second. See also: watt and kilowatt-hour

kWh | Kilowatt-hour

One thousand watt hours. The most common unit on electricity bills. 1 kilowatt-hour is the volume of electricity consumed or produced over 1 hour at 1 kilowatt. This nomenclature is similar to the concept of a light-year, which is a distance measured using units of time. See also: kilowatt

Landscape capacity

The degree to which a particular landscape character type or area is able to accommodate change without unacceptable adverse effects on its character, landscape value or visual amenity. Capacity is likely to vary according the type and nature of change being proposed.

Landscape Character

A distinct and recognisable pattern of elements that occurs consistently in a particular type of landscape and how this is perceived by people. It reflects particular combinations of geology, landform, soils, vegetation, land use and human settlement. It creates the particular sense of place of different areas of the landscape.

LCA | Landscape Character Area

A geographical area with a particular landscape character. Usually defined by a landscape character assessment, and usually occurs within and/or may contain LCTs and relates to particular geographical locations.

Landscape constraints

Components of the landscape resource such as views or mature trees recognised as constraints to development. Often associated with landscape opportunities.

Landscape designations

Areas protected either by law or through planning policies for reason of their landscape attributes or general amenity e.g. National Parks.

Landscape effects

Change in the elements, characteristics, character, and qualities of the landscape as a result of development.

Landscape elements

A component part of the landscape, such as trees, woodland and ponds.

Landscape features

Prominent eye-catching elements, e.g. wooded hill tops and church spires.

Landscape fit

The relationship of a development to identified landscape opportunities and constraints in its setting.

Landscape patterns

Spatial distributions of landscape elements combining to form patterns, which may be distinctive, recognisable and describable e.g. hedgerows and stream patterns.

Landscape quality (or condition)

Based on judgements about the physical state of the landscape, and about its intactness, from visual, functional, and ecological perspectives. It also reflects the state of repair of individual features and elements which make up the character in any one place.

Landscape resource

The combination of elements that contribute to landscape context, character, and value.

Landscape sensitivity

The sensitivity of a landscape is defined by consideration of factors such as value, quality / condition and capacity of the landscape relative to a particular type of proposed development.

Landscape value

The relative value or importance attached to a landscape or view; (often as a basis for designation) which expresses national or local consensus, because of its quality, including perceptual aspects such as scenic beauty, cultural associations or other conservation issues.

LDP | Local Development Plan

An aspect of town and country planning in the United Kingdom comprising a set of documents that set out the local authority’s policies and proposals for the development and use of land in their area.

Level of Effect

Determined through the combination of sensitivity of the receptor and the proposed magnitude of change brought about by the development.

LLP | Limited Liability Partnership

A partnership in which one or all of the partners does not have liability for the others.

Low Speed Shaft

The low speed shaft of the wind turbine connects the rotor hub to the gearbox. The shaft contains pipes for the hydraulics system to enable the aerodynamic brakes to operate.

LVIA | Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment


A combination of the scale, extent and duration of an effect also defined as ‘degree of change’.

Mechanical Brake

A mechanical disc brake which can be applied mechanically to stop the turbine in emergencies or when being serviced

MW Megawatt

One Million Watts. Or one Thousand KiloWatts. One Megawatt will power approximately 500 houses. See also: watt

Mitigation Measures

Measures including any process, activity, or design to avoid, reduce, remedy or compensate for adverse environmental impact or effects of a development.


A review of the progress or quality of a project over a period of time.


The body/shell/casing of a wind turbine. The nacelle contains the key components of the wind turbine, including the gearbox and the electrical generator. Service personnel may enter the nacelle from the tower of the turbine. For example, the Nordex N100 has a total Nacelle weight of 91 tonnes.

NFE | National Forestry Estate

The National Forest Estate is the largest single public land resource held by the Scottish Government, comprising over 660k hectares and over 35% of Scotland's woodlands. It is a valuable resource which shows how government forestry benefits society and the wider forestry industry, while improving and developing responses to challenges such as climate change.

NIE | Northern Ireland Electricity

The District Network Operator (DNO) in Northern Ireland.

NIMBY | Not in my backyard

The term used to describe opposition by residents to a proposal for a new development close to them, opposing residents themselves are sometimes called Nimbies.

NSA | National Scenic Area

A National Scenic Area (NSA) is a conservation designation used in Scotland, and currently administered by Scottish Natural Heritage. NSAs are defined as having outstanding scenic interest or unsurpassed attractiveness.

NSCE | National Standards for Community Engagement

National Standards for Community Engagement, launched in May 2005, set out best practice principles for the way that government agencies, councils, health boards, police and other public bodies engage with communities.


The change or benefit resulting from an activity.

Parish Land

The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1894 established Parish Councils in Scotland which were subsequently abolished by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1929. During the 35 years of their life, Parish Councils acquired land (some of it gifted) for the benefit of the inhabitants of the Parish. In some cases, property was acquired in the joint names of the Burgh and the Parish as with, for example, the Kinross Carnegie Free Library where Andrew Carnegie gifted £1500 to build the library which "shall belong in all time coming to inhabitants of the said Town and Parish". Source

Pilot Study

A small scale preliminary study conducted in order to evaluate feasibility, time, cost, adverse events, and effect size (statistical variability) in an attempt to predict an appropriate sample size and improve upon the study design prior to performance of a full-scale research project.

Planning permission

Planning permission or planning consent is the permission required in the United Kingdom in order to be allowed to build on land, or change the use of land or buildings. Within the UK the occupier of any land or building will need title to that land or building (i.e. "ownership"), but will also need "planning title" or planning permission.

PLC | Public Limited Company

A limited (liability) company whose shares are freely sold and traded to the public, with a minimum share capital of £50,000 and the letters PLC after its name.


An illustration of a computer generated perspective model of the proposed development that has been superimposed or combined onto a photograph from a recorded location.

Positive or Negative Types of Landscape Effect

The landscape and visual effects may be positive, neutral or negative. In landscape terms – a positive effect would require development to add to the landscape quality and character of an area. Neutral landscape effects would include low or negligible changes that may be considered as part of the ‘normal’ landscape processes such as maintenance or harvesting activities. A negative effect may include the loss of landscape elements such as mature trees and hedgerows as part of construction leading to a reduction in the landscape quality and character of an area.

Positive or Negative Types of Visual Effect

In visual terms – positive or negative effects are less easy to define or quantify and require a subjective consideration of a number of factors affecting the view, which may be positive, neutral or negative. Opinions as to the visual effects of wind energy developments vary widely, however it is not the assumption of this assessment that all change, including substantial levels of change is a negative experience. Rather this assessment has considered factors such as the visual composition of the landscape in the view together with the design and composition, which may or may not be reasonably, accommodated within the scale and character of the landscape as perceived from the receptor location.

Power Coefficient

The ratio of the power extracted by a wind turbine to the power available in the wind stream.

Power curve

A chart showing a wind turbine's power output across a range of wind speeds.


The stage of development when financing and government approvals are sought but before architectural drawings are begun.


Site of Importance (International) to Water Birds. Designated under The Convention on Wetlands, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971 and brought into force in Europe by Directive 79/409/EEC on the Conservation of Wild Birds (the Birds Directive).

Rated Power Output Capacity

The rated power output is the maximum amount of electricity generated at a set (rated) wind speed. The Nordex N100 has a rating capacity of 2500kw at wind speeds of 13 metres per second (m/s) or over. The turbine will ‘cut in’ at 3.5m/s and ‘cut-out’ at 25m/s.

Rated wind speed

The lowest wind speed at which the rated output power of a wind turbine is produced.


Physical landscape resource, special interest or viewer group that will experience an effect.

ICUN Red List

The International Union for Conservation of Nature’s comprehensive inventory of conservation status of biological species around the world.

Birds of Conservation Concern

Birds of Conservation Concern is a report by a partnership of the UK's leading conservation organisations that assesses the status of all the UK's regularly occurring birds.

RHI | Renewable Heat Incentive

A payment for generating heat from renewable sources - the equivalent of FiTs for biomass, solar heat panels etc.

RO | Renewables Obligation

The renewables obligation requires licensed electricity suppliers to supply a certain proportion of their total sales in Great Britain from electricity generated by renewable sources. The electricity supplier will need to show evidence of compliance. This can be via Renewables Obligation Certificates (ROCs) and/or the payment of a buyout price. Further information about the Renewables Obligation can be found at:

ROCs | Renewables Obligation Certificates

Green certificates issued by the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) to operators of accredited renewable generating stations for the eligible renewable electricity they generate. Operators can then trade the ROCs with other parties, with the ROCs ultimately being used by suppliers to demonstrate that they have met their obligation. ROCs are effectively a form of government subsidy for larger renewable projects.


The trade and professional body for the UK wind and marine renewables industries.

Residential Visual Amenity

A collective term describing the views and general amenity of a residential property, relating to the garden area and main drive, views to and from the house and any garden area and the relationship of the outdoor garden space to the house.

Residual effects

Potential environmental effects of development, remaining after mitigation.


Income generated from the sale of goods or services.

Rio Declaration (1992)

The Rio Declatation, was a short document produced at the 1992 United Nations "Conference on Environment and Development" (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit. The Rio Declaration consisted of 27 principles intended to guide future sustainable development around the world.


The combined structure of the blades and the hub of a wind turbine. The Nordex N100 has a rotor diameter of 99.8m and weighs 55 tonnes.

Rotor Blades

The rotor blades operate using the physics of lift to capture the wind and transfer its power to the rotor hub. A Nordex N100 has 3 blades of 48.7 metres in length each, which are designed much like a wing of an aeroplane.

Rotor Hub

The hub of the rotor is the central piece to which the blades of a wind turbine are attached. It is then connected to the low speed shaft.

Scale Indicators

Landscape elements and features of a known or recognisable scale such as houses, trees and vehicles that may be compared to other objects where the scale of height is less familiar, to indicate there true scale.

SCIO | Scottish Charitable Incorporated Organisation

Introduced in 2011, this type of organisation acts like a company limited by guarantee with charitable status.


A process of checking against a list of basic requirements.

Sense of Place (genius loci)

The essential character and spirit of and area: genius loci literally means ‘sprit of the place’.

Shadow Flicker

The flickering effect caused when rotating wind turbine blades periodically cast shadows through constrained openings such as the windows of neighbouring properties.

Significant Effects

It is a requirement of the EIA Regulations to determine the likely significant effects of the development on the environment which should relate to the level of an effect and the type of effect. Where possible significant effects should be mitigated. The significance of an effect gives an indication as to the degree of importance (based on the magnitude of the effect and the sensitivity of the receptor) that should be attached to the impact described. Whether or not an effect should be considered significant is not absolute and requires the application of professional judgement. Significant – ‘noteworthy, of considerable amount or effect or importance, not insignificant or negligible’. Those levels and types of landscape and visual effect likely to have a major or important / noteworthy or special effect of which a decision maker should take particular note.

SNH | Scottish Natural Heritage

Statutory advisor on conservation in Scotland.

Social Enterprise

A 'Social Enterprise' can be defined as a Company that:
a. Has a clear social and/or environmental mission set out in its governing documents;
b. Generates the majority of its income through trade;
c. Reinvests the majority of its profits;
d. Is autonomous of the government or state;
e. Is majority controlled in the interests of the social mission;
f. Is accountable and transparent.
SCENE is an example of a Social Enterprise.

SIA | Social Impact Assessment

A methodology to review the social effects of infrastructure projects and other development inventions.

Social Outcomes

The results of an activity on the social fabric of the community and wellbeing of the individuals and families.


The behavioral interations of groups and individuals through social capital and social markets and the formation of social norms.

Solar Panel

A flat panel composed of solar cells (usually silicon) that converts sunlight into electricity. Solar panels can be arranged in parallel on roofs to generate electricity while the sun is shining. Solar is eligible for the Feed-In Tariff and the Renewables Obligation programmes in the UK.

SPA | Special Protection Area

Designated (European) Site under the ‘Habitats Directive’ (92/43/EEC on the Conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora)

SSSI | Site of Specific Scientific Interest Designated (UK)

Site for nature conservation under The Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981 – as amended by the Countryside & Rights of Way Act 2000) Sustainability The principle that the environment should be protected in such a condition and to such a degree that ensures new development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.


A person group or organisation with an interest in a project.

Temporary or permanent effects

Effects may be considered as temporary or permanent, in the case of wind farm development the application is for a 25 year period after which the assessment assumes that decommissioning will occur and that the Proposal Site will be restored. For these reasons the development is referred to as temporary, long term and reversible.

The Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (Ofgem)

The Regulator for Britain's gas and electricity industries. Website:

Theoretical Framework

A theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated concepts, like a theory but not necessarily so well worked-out. A theoretical framework guides your research, determining what things you will measure, and what statistical relationships you will look for.

Time Depth

The ‘imprint’ of the past on the present day landscape as a result of long term interaction between human activity and natural processes. Time depth enhances our appreciation of how landscapes have changed through time or survived through continuity.

Top-down approach

An approach to a problem that begins at the highest conceptual level and works down to the details, i.e, of or relating to a hierarchical structure or process that progresses from a large, basic unit to smaller, detailed subunits.


The tower carries the nacelle and the rotor. Generally, it is an advantage to have a high tower, since wind speeds increase farther away from the ground. The Nordex N100 turbine could have a tubular tower of 80 to 100 metres (to the hub). Tubular towers are safer for the personnel that have to maintain the turbines, as they may use an inside ladder to get to the top of the turbine. A 100m tower would weigh about 300 tonnes.


A perceptual description applied to landscape that is perceived to be relatively more natural, peaceful, and quite when compared to other areas, which may be visually developed or noisy.


A machine for generating rotary mechanical power from the energy of a moving force (such as water, hot gas, wind, or steam). A wind turbine converts the force of the wind into energy.

Type or Nature of Effect

Whether an effect is direct or indirect, temporary or permanent, positive (beneficial), neutral or negative (adverse) or cumulative.

UDP | Unitary Development Plan

A unitary development plan is an old-style development plan prepared by a metropolitan district and some unitary local authorities that contain policies equivalent to those in both a structure plan and a local plan. By virtue of specific transitional provisions, these plans will continue to operate for a time after the commencement of the new development plan system.

Visual amenity

Value of a particular place in terms of an observers visual experience.

Visual dominance

A visual effect on properties that in relation to wind farm development would be subject to excessive shadow flicker, blocking of views, or reduction of light and visual intrusion.

Visual effect

A subset of landscape effects and concerned wholly with changes in visual receptors’ views and visual amenity of visual receptors resulting from development.

Visual sensitivity

The sensitivity of visual receptors such as residents, to visual change proposed by development categorised in accordance with the guidance provided in the GLVIA.


Computer visualisation, photomontage, or other technique to illustrate the appearance of the development from a known location.


A rate of electricity consumption or production. Equal to 1 joule per second. See also: kilowatt

Wind Farm

A group of wind turbines, often owned and maintained by one company. Also known as a wind power plant.

Wind Vane

The wind vane is a device that measures the direct of the wind. The wind vane signals are used by the wind turbine's electronic controller to turn the wind turbine against the wind, using the yaw mechanism.

Wireframe or Wireline

A computer generated line drawing of the DTM (digital terrain model) and the proposed development from a known location.

Wood chip

Wood chip is the medium-sized solid material made from cutting, or chipping, larger pieces of wood. Woodchips may be used as a biomass solid fuel and are raw material for producing wood pulp.

Wood pellet

A wood pellet is a type of wood fuel, generally made from compacted sawdust or other wastes from sawmilling and other wood products manufacture, but also sometimes from sources such as whole-tree removal or tree tops and branches leftover after logging and which otherwise help replenish soil nutrients.

Yaw Mechanism

The yaw mechanism uses electrical motors to turn the nacelle with the rotor against the wind. The yaw mechanism is operated by the electronic controller which senses the wind direction using the wind vane. Normally, the turbine will yaw only a few degrees at a time, when the wind changes its direction.

Unless cited otherwise, entries were created using original SCENE research, and sources / adapted after: Clark, M. and Chadwick, D. (2012), The Carbon Trust / Partnership for Renewables (2011), and Wikipedia.